To begin, it is important to note that an employer cannot require an employee to be vaccinated for COVID-19. The federal and provincial governments have not made it mandatory for all people to be vaccinated; as such, an employer’s workplace policies cannot make it mandatory.
• Employers cannot require employees to be vaccinated.
• Employers may ask if an employee has been vaccinated.
• Employers must be mindful of privacy and human rights concerns.
However, an employer may ask an employee if they have been vaccinated. And while this may be regarded as a violation of privacy rights, an employer has an obligation under law to maintain a safe workplace. This obligation overrides any privacy concerns. Having knowledge of which employees have been vaccinated can help an employer determine, among other things, how to assign duties and roles, and which employees are best suited for face-to-face contact with clients. Safety, not only for employees, but for customers as well, is a chief concern for employers who wish to avoid potentially serious liability. Interacting with employees that either lie about or do not wish to disclose their vaccination status or dealing with customers who sue because they contracted COVID-19 after interacting with an infected employee are but a few of the new challenges that businesses are faced with. Thus, it is crucial for an employer to know whether an employee has received any of the recommended vaccination shots.
When collecting such personal information from employees, employers should clearly communicate their reasons, and are advised to be reasonable in their approach, gathering only the amount of information that is necessary. More importantly, an employer must avoid creating a workplace in which non-vaccinated employees are stigmatized, harassed, or bullied. Employers must be mindful that some of their workers may have legitimate reasons for not getting vaccinated – reasons which may be protected under human rights law (e.g., medical or religious reasons).
The collected information is to be kept private and cannot be shared without the consent of the employee. For example, as businesses across Ontario begin to open up, customers may ask about the vaccination status of certain employees, particularly in the hospitality, personal care, and retail sectors. An employer must be cautious not to divulge the personal information of employees that have not consented.
The new COVID-19 landscape is forcing companies to adjust their workplace policies. Moreover, it is forcing business owners to ask uniquely tough questions. For example, can an employer require a new hire to be vaccinated? Can employees be incentivized to get vaccinated? What is the extent of the duty to accommodate and how does it apply to employees who refuse to get vaccinated?
Whether you are an employer or an employee, we would be glad to go into further detail on these recent issues and address any of your concerns.
Feel free to send us an e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org or call us at 905-471-6161 to speak with one of our Employment Law and Civil Litigation practitioners.
Authors: Ben Brillantes
COVID – 19 (Coronavirus) and Force Majeure or Act of God Clauses
As Ontario declares a State of Emergency and begins shutting down many businesses in light of the continued spread of COVID-19 across Ontario, many companies and individuals are left asking whether or not they are required to honour their contractual commitments.
The question we are being asked again and again, is whether or not COVID-19 can be deemed a force majeure event, specifically, whether COVID-19 constitutes an “Act of God” sufficient to discharge a party’s contractual obligations. Here are the essential questions that need to be considered in order to determine if COVID-19 affects your contractual obligations:
Does your contract have a “Force Majeure” or “Act of God” clause?
A thorough review of your contract is necessary to determine whether there is a clause which can be interpreted as a “Force Majeure/Act of God Clause”. In the absence of an express contractual term stating that a party will not be required to honour their obligations in the event of a Force Majeure event or an Act of God, to date, Canadian courts have been unlikely to interpret the contract to have an implied Force Majeure Clause. This is not to say, that in the aftermath of COVID-19, we may see changes to this in common law. However, as the situation currently stands, if you do not have an express Force Majeure/Act of God Clause, you should not rely on COVID-19 as a reason for not honouring your contractual commitments.
Does your Force Majeure/Act of God Clause Cover COVID-19?
If your contract contains a Force Majeure/Act of God Clause, then it must be determined if the clause applies to the circumstances surrounding COVID-19. The Force Majeure/Act of God Clause will typically list the specific events which will be covered by the clause. If the clause does not specifically state “pandemic”, “disease” or something which can be applied to COVID-19, Canadian Judges may be required to rely on common law to determine if the clause covers COVID-19.
The Supreme Court of Canada, in Atlantic Paper Stock Ltd. v. St. Anne-Nack, , was forced to do just that and held that the “common thread” in all the events listed in the clause was an event that is “unexpected, something beyond reasonable human foresight and skill” and applied the clause to an event which was not specifically named in Force Majeure/Act of God Clause as being covered as it fit this criterion.
Even if you intend to rely on a Force Majeure/Act of God Clause, it is important to note that you must always do your best to mitigate/reduce your damages, and take all reasonable steps you can to comply with your contractual obligations. If an event can be mitigated, courts may consider the event to be one that is not beyond the control of the party.
What if your contract does not have a Force Majeure Clause, or your Force Majeure clause does not apply?
In the event that you cannot rely on a Force Majeure/Act of God Clause to discharge your obligations under a contract, you may be able to rely on the Doctrine of Frustration. Frustration of contract takes place when an unforeseen event, at the fault of neither party, significantly changes the nature of the parties’ obligations or abilities to perform the contract.
For example, you enter into an agreement to rent a property and the property burns down, at the fault of neither party. The purpose of this contract, to rent the property, is frustrated by the lack of a property to rent. As such, the parties cannot reasonable be expected to comply with their contractual obligations.
The onus is on the party seeking to rely on the force majeure clause to prove that the force majeure event has hindered, delayed or altogether prevented the performance of the contract.
The language used is key when drafting a Force Majeure clause in a contract. Parties who seek to broaden the scope of the clause, specifically regarding COVID-19 or other pandemics, should include phrases such as “communicable disease outbreak” rather than simply stating “epidemic” or “pandemic”.
On the other hand, parties may seek to limit the risk of COVID-19 triggering a Force Majeure event might consider implementing language that solely describes Force Majeure as an “act of God” with no additional events stated. With COVID-19’s long existence, people can better prepare, lowering the chances of an event being declared an “act of God” by the courts.
Further, the language of the contract should address the threshold of impact in clear language. Courts have found uncertainty occurs where a force majeure clause does not precisely define the impact required from the event. As an example, “preventing” performance may be too strict of a standard, whereas “hindering” performance can be considered too lenient.
Lastly, in order to ensure the party seeking to rely on the clause notifies the other party, a notice provision must be drafted. This provision outlines the time within which notice must be given, the facts the notice must contain, and where the notice should be served.
It is important to note that many Canadians are being affected by COVID-19, we can all do our part to work together to reduce the financial burden on individuals and businesses. Some contracts can be delayed or extended by mutual agreement, and parties may choose not to enforce certain contractual provisions immediately. We always strongly recommend seeking independent legal advice prior to taking any definitive actions with respect to your contracts.
To find out more about how to protect yourself or if you need assistance navigating your contracts, contact us by phone at 905-471-6161 or email us at email@example.com.
Authors: Syrah Y. Yusuf, Alvin W. Leung, and Tiana Terrigno